Table 2

Heterogeneity and sensitivity analysis analysis of risk factors among included studies

Risk factorsNumber
of studies
HTNon-HTStatistic methodI2Pooled effect sizeSensitivity analysis
95% CILower limitUpper limit
Demographic factors
 Age142482300I-V, fixed, WMD473.46 (2.26 to 4.66)2.86 (1.60 to 4.12)3.98 (2.68 to 5.28)
 Male142482300M-H, fixed, COR00.95 (0.76 to 1.18)0.78 (0.29 to 2.13)1.43 (0.45 to 5.88)
Vascular risk factors
 Hypertension142482300M-H, fixed, COR01.05 (0.85 to 1.30)0.71 (0.22 to 2.30)1.57 (0.69 to 3.57)
 Diabetes142482300M-H, fixed, COR131.18 (0.87 to 1.61)0.59 (0.07 to 5.20)2.79 (1.08 to 7.22)
 Hyperlipaemia696650M-H, fixed, COR01.10 (0.63 to 1.90)1.03 (0.43 to 2.48)1.36 (0.29 to 6.42)
 Atrial fibrillation121761200M-H, fixed, MOR282.66 (1.85 to 3.81)2.39 (1.65 to 3.46)3.02 (2.05 to 4.45)
 Previous stroke11142790M-H, fixed, COR141.68 (1.08 to 2.60)1.49 (0.92 to 2.41)1.97 (1.21 to 3.23)
 Smoking91421040M-H, fixed, COR01.09 (0.80 to 1.50)0.46 (0.05 to 4.21)1.43 (0.59 to 3.48)
Other risk factors
 Previous antiplatelet91881879M-H, fixed, MOR01.67 (1.17 to 2.38)1.52 (1.04 to 2.22)1.91 (1.24 to 2.97)
 NIHSS81391040I-V, random, AOR361.10 (1.05 to 1.15)1.09 (1.04 to 1.14)1.12 (1.06 to 1.18)
 Systolic pressure122202079I-V, fixed, WMD424.75 (2.50 to 7.00)3.28 (0.77 to 5.78)6.10 (3.55 to 8.66)
 Diastolic pressure112071916I-V, fixed, WMD352.67 (1.08 to 4.26)2.17 (0.51 to 3.82)3.34 (1.43 to 5.26)
 Serum glucose102042058I-V, random, WMD831.11 (0.07 to 2.16)0.77(−0.19 to 1.73)1.43 (0.62 to 2.26)
 Serum glucose*91922001I-V, random, WMD661.44 (0.62 to 2.26)1.01 (0.38 to 1.61)1.66 (0.81 to 2.51)
  • *Effect size was calculated by excluding one single study.

  • AOR, adjusted  OR; COR, crude OR; HT, haemorrhagic   transformation;  I-V, inverse variance; M-H, Mantel-Haenszel; MOR, mixed OR; NIHSS, National Institute of Health stroke scale; WMD, weighted mean difference.