Table 1

The examples of DTI and fMRI studies in SVCI

StudySubjectsNNeuroimaging techniqueMain findings
Xu et al32SVCI and normal controls42DTI and conventional MRIDTI detected FA and MD alterations in normal-appearing white matter in SVCI subjects. DTI changes correlated with cognition better than did conventional MRI.
Kim et al37SVCI61DTI and conventional MRIDTI abnormalities in supratentorial regions correlated with cognitive deficits better than did the ischaemic burden detected by conventional structural MRI.
Lin et al38SVCI and cognitively normal subjects with subcortical ischaemic vascular disease50DTISVCI subjects displayed decreased FA and increased MD in all supratentorial regions, which correlated with cognitive dysfunction.
Kim et al39Subcortical VaD, AD and normal controls128DTIPatients with subcortical VaD showed decreased FA and increased MD in all white matter regions.
Zhou et al40SVCI and normal controls36DTISVCI subjects showed lower FA values throughout the brain.
Jung et al41SVCI and normal controls169DTISVCI subjects displayed decreased FA in multiple white matter tracts neighbouring and providing connections between grey matter regions.
Shim et al42SVCI, MCI and normal controls57DTIA greater decrease in FA in the centrum semiovale and parietal regions in SVCI subjects, and the lowest FA in the hippocampus in MCI subjects.
Chen et al43Subcortical VaD, MCI, AD, FTD and normal controls85DTIWhite matter abnormalities mainly in the frontal cortical regions, the genu of the corpus callosum and periventricular regions in subcortical VaD subjects.
Zarei et al44VaD, AD and normal controls51DTIThe decreased FA in the transcallosal prefrontal tracts was the most significant biomarker for VaD.
Sun et al55SVCI and cognitively normal elderly with subcortical ischaemic vascular disease34Resting-state fMRIDecreased DMN FC with frontal, anterior cingulate and temporal regions and increased FC with temporal and parietal regions in SVCI subjects.
Kim et al57Subcortical VaD, AD, mixed dementia and normal controls152Resting-state fMRILower FC in frontal and anterior insular regions in subcortical VaD subjects.
Zhou et al56SVCI and normal controls55Structural and resting-state fMRIDecreased FC between medial prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex and supplementary motor area in SVCI subjects.
Yi et al58SVCI and normal controls54Structural and resting-state fMRIDecreased low-frequency oscillations amplitudes in the anterior part of the DMN and increased amplitudes in the posterior part of the DMN in SVCI subjects.
Yi et al59SVCI and normal controls47Resting-state fMRIDecreased intramodular connectivity in the prefrontal cortex, parietal cortex, anterior insula and middle cingulate cortex and increased intermodular connectivity in the parietal cortex in SVCI subjects.
Li et al62Subcortical VaD, AD and normal controls20Task-fMRIThe activation in the frontal, parietal and anterior cingulate cortex was reduced in subcortical VaD subjects during performing a Stroop test.
Li et al63SVCI, subcortical VaD and normal controls35Task-fMRIMild SVCI subjects displayed significantly increased activation in frontal regions, whereas VaD subjects showed decreased activation during performing a Stroop test.
  • AD, Alzheimer’s disease; DMN, default mode network; DTI, diffusion tensor imaging; FA, fractional anisotropy; FC, functional connectivity; fMRI, functional MRI; FTD, frontotemporal dementia; MCI, mild cognitive impairment; MD, mean diffusivity; SVCI, subcortical vascular cognitive impairment; VaD, vascular dementia; VCI, vascular cognitive impairment.