Table 2

Preclinical studies regarding neurogenic pathway modulation after stroke

Prass et al56Mouse, 60 min MCAOβ-blocker, propranololPrevented bacterial infections post-MCAO and reduced mice mortality.
HPA blocker, RU486Did not prevent bacterial infections after MCAO.
Mracsko et al64Mouse, 60 min MCAOβ2-adrenergic receptor blockerPreserved IFN-γ production by lymphocytes after stroke.
HPA blocker, RU486Prevented poststroke lymphopenia.
Ajmo Jr et al65Rat, permanent MCAOPan-adrenergic receptor blocker, carvedilolPrevented the reduction in spleen size, reduced infarct volume; propranolol treatment also had no effects on spleen size and stroke outcome.
β-blocker, propranololNo effects on spleen size and stroke outcome.
α1 receptor blocker, prazosinPrevented the reduction in spleen size; no effect on infarct volume.
Römer et al46Mouse, both WT and 2D2, 60 min MCAOβ-blocker, propranolol
HPA blocker, RU486
Both reduced infarct volumes, decreased infection rate and increased long-term survival of 2D2 and WT mice; increased autoreactive CNS antigen-specific T cell responses in the brain but did not worsen functional long-term outcome in the 2D2 stroke model.
Wong et al48Mouse, 60 min MCAOβ-blocker, propranololPreserved iNKT cell function and reduced poststroke infection.
Liu et al43Mouse, 60 min MCAOβ-blocker, propranolol
HPA blocker, RU486
Propranolol and RU486 synergistically inhibited immunosuppression poststroke, prevented infection and improved the functional outcome of mice.
  • 2D2 mice, myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) T cell receptor transgenic mice; HPA, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis; IFN -γ , interferon-γ; iNKT, invariant NKT; MCAO, middle cerebral artery occlusion; WT, wild type.