Table 3

Clinical use of β-blockers in patients with stroke

StudyDesignStroke typeSample size and groupEnd pointsConclusions
Raedt et al66Subgroup analysis of two lubeluzole studiesIschaemic1375, with 264 receiving β-blockersPoor functional outcome (mRS >3) at 3 monthsUse of β-blockers does not appear to influence stroke severity and functional outcome at 3 months.
Laowattana et al57ProspectiveIschaemic111, with 22 treated with β-blockersStroke severity on presentation gauged by Canadian Neurologic Scale (CanNS)Use of β-blocker is associated with less severe stroke on presentation and may be cerebroprotective.
Dziedzic et al58RetrospectiveIschaemic841, with 88 treated with β-blockers30-day case fatalityβ-blocker use was associated with reduced risk of early death.
Maier et al59Historical cohort studyIschaemic/
625, with 301 treated with β-blockersPneumonia, urinary tract infections and deathβ-blocker therapy did not reduce the risk for poststroke pneumonia, but significantly reduced the risk for urinary tract infections; patients with β-blocker therapy showed higher 30-day mortality.
Sykora et al60Non-randomisedIschaemic5212, with 1155 treated with β-blockers before stroke and 244 started in acute phaseMortality, functional outcome (mRS), occurrence of pneumoniaβ-blocker therapy was associated with reduced pneumonia frequency; treatment started in acute phase of stroke was associated with reduced mortality; no association with functional outcome.
  • mRS, modified Rankin Scale.