Table 1

Baseline characteristics of patients with AIS/TIA according to BG-EPVS

CharacteristicsNone/mild (n=8634)Moderate (n=3135)Frequent/severe (n=834)P value
Age, years, mean (SD)60.2±11.266.1±9.970.5±9.2<0.001
BMI, kg/m2, mean (SD)24.8±3.324.7±3.424.3±3.4<0.001
Sex, male (%)5808 (67.3)2218 (70.8)573 (68.7)0.002
Alcohol intake, n (%)1244 (14.4)438 (14.0)93 (11.2)0.03
Tobacco intake, n (%)2848 (33.0)890 (28.4)194 (23.3)<0.001
SBP, mm Hg, median (IQR)147.5 (134.0–163.0)150.0 (137.0–165.0)150.0 (137.5–164.0)<0.001
DBP, mm Hg, median (IQR)86.0 (79.0–95.0)87.0 (79.5–96.5)85.5 (79.0–94.0)0.03
History of disease, n (%)
 Diabetes mellitus2030 (23.5)701 (22.4)135 (16.2)<0.001
 Hypertension5097 (59.0)2225 (71.0)591 (70.9)<0.001
 Hyperlipidaemia716 (8.3)243 (7.8)45 (5.4)0.01
 Stroke1635 (18.9)868 (27.7)261 (31.3)<0.001
 TIA233 (2.7)88 (2.8)19 (2.3)0.70
 Coronary artery disease797 (9.2)385 (12.3)95 (11.4)<0.001
 Heart failure43 (0.5)27 (0.9)5 (0.6)0.08
 Peripheral artery disease67 (0.8)21 (0.7)6 (0.7)0.84
Medication use during hospitalisation or at discharge, n (%)
 Antiplatelet treatment8465 (98.0)3063 (97.7)819 (98.2)0.46
 Anticoagulation treatment860 (10.0)319 (10.2)97 (11.6)0.31
 Statins treatment8422 (97.5)3058 (97.5)803 (96.3)0.08
 Hypoglycaemic treatment2359 (27.3)811 (25.9)156 (18.7)<0.001
 Antihypertension treatment4348 (50.4)1932 (61.6)501 (60.1)<0.001
NIHSS on admission, median (IQR)3.0 (1.0–6.0)3.0 (1.0–6.0)3.0 (2.0–5.0)0.98
mRS, median (IQR)0.0 (0.0–0.0)0.0 (0.0–1.0)0.0 (0.0–1.0)<0.001
Index event, n (%)<0.001
 Ischaemic stroke8014 (92.8)2973 (94.8)796 (95.4)
 TIA620 (7.2)162 (5.2)38 (4.6)
TOAST, n (%)<0.001
 Large artery atherosclerosis2295 (26.6)825 (26.3)210 (25.2)
 Cardioembolism466 (5.4)193 (6.2)70 (8.4)
 Small vascular occlusion1859 (21.5)783 (25.0)223 (26.7)
 Other determination141 (1.6)26 (0.8)4 (0.5)
 Undetermined3873 (44.9)1308 (41.7)327 (39.2)
CSVD markers
 D-WMH, median (IQR)1.0 (1.0–2.0)2.0 (1.0–2.0)2.0 (1.0–3.0)<0.001
 PV-WMH, median (IQR)1.0 (1.0–2.0)2.0 (1.0–2.0)2.0 (2.0–3.0)<0.001
 Lacune, n (%)3521 (40.8)2068 (66.0)637 (76.4)<0.001
  • AIS, acute ischaemic attack; BG-EPVS, EPVS in basal ganglia; BMI, body mass index; CSVD, cerebral small vessel disease; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; D-WMH, deep-WMH; EPVS, enlarged perivascular spaces; mRS, modified Rankin scale; NIHSS, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score; PV-WMH, periventricular-WMH; SBP, systolic blood pressure; TIA, transient ischaemic attack; TOAST, Trial of Org 10 172 in Acute Stroke Treatment; WMH, white matter hyperintensity.