Table 3

Complications and physiological parameters during and after hypothermia

Bradycardia (37–39 bpm),* n (%)7 (32%)
Pneumonia,† n (%)4 (18%)
Haemorrhagic transformation‡ n (%)4 (18%)
Symptomatic intracerebral haemorrhage,§ n0
Nose bleeding,* n (%)1 (5%)
Smell or taste disorder (day 7), n0
Blood pressure,¶ mm Hg, (mean±SD)
 Systolic136±12
 Mean86±8
At admission and at 24 hours
 Potassium (mmol/l)4.2±0.4; 4.2±0.4
 Sodium (mmol/l)139±2 ; 140+3
 Creatinine (mg/dl)0.95±0.3; 0.87±0.25
  • *Without the need for intervention.

  • †Defined as any new pulmonary infiltrate on radiographic imaging occurring <48 hours after admission, combined with at least one of the subsequent findings: fever >38°C, leucopenia/leucocytosis, purulent secretions with positive cultures.

  • ‡Asymptomatic, small or confluent petechiae within the infarcted area without space-occupying effect on CT, within 48 hours of cooling.

  • §Parenchymal haematoma type 2 on CT within 48 hours of cooling, defined as clots in at least 30% of the infarcted area, with a space-occupying effect in combination with worsening of NIHSS by >4 points.

  • ¶Average reading of during the first 14 hours of cooling induction.

  • NIHSS, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale.