Table 1

Population and angioarchitecture features of pediatric pial arteriovenous fistula (PAVF)

VariablesTotal (n=42)Younger group
(0–3 years, n=20)
Older group
(>3 years, n=22)
P value
Baseline characteristics
 Mean age (year)4.0 (2.0, 7.0)2.0 (1.0, 2.0)7.0 (5.0, 10.25)0.000
 Male26 (61.9%)11 (55.0%)15 (68.2%)0.380
 Preoperative period (month)14.8±10.15.4±5.116.9±13.70.000
Presentation
 Acute symptoms*11 (26.2%)6 (14.3%)5 (22.7%)0.592
 Chronic symptoms†20 (47.6%)14 (70.0%)7 (31.8%)0.013
 Preoperative mRS1.64±1.572.10±1.481.23±1.170.045
Angioarchitecture
 Lesion type
  Single PAVF31 (73.8%)16 (80.0%)15 (68.2%)0.384
  PAVF+PAVF/PMAVF4 (9.5%)1 (5.0%)3 (13.6%)0.670
  PAVF+CAVM7 (16.7%)4 (20.0%)3 (13.6%)0.890
 Location
  Supratentorial36 (85.7%)17 (85.0%)19 (86.4%)1.000
 Feeding artery
  Single feeder28 (66.7%)13 (65.0%)15 (68.2%)0.827
  Anterior circulation feeder27 (64.3%)12 (60.0%)15 (68.2%)0.580
  Posterior circulation feeder26 (61.9%)13 (65.0%)13 (68.2%)0.694
 Venous drainage
  Sinus occlusion17 (40.5%)12 (60.0%)5 (22.7%)0.014
  Dynamic sinus obstruction21 (50.0%)14 (70.0%)7 (31.8%)0.013
 Related change
  Cerebral ventricle dilation13 (31.0%)9 (45.0%)4 (18.2%)0.047
  Cardiac enlargement21 (50.0%)15 (75.0%)6 (27.3%)0.002
  • *Haemorrhage or acute hydrocephalus.

  • †Other except asymptomatic.

  • CAVM, cerebral arteriovenous malformation; mRS, modified Rankin Scale; PMAVF, perimedullary arteriovenous fistula.