Table 1

Prevalence and adjusted prevalence ratios of VTE among AIS patients with and without COVID-19 by demographic characteristics

VariablesTotal N (%)AIS patients with hospitalised COVID-19 (N=13 873)AIS patients with non-hospitalised COVID-19 (N=12 897)AIS patients without COVID-19 (N=256 264)P value*PR (95% CI)†
Hospitalised COVID-19 vs non-COVID-19 AIS
PR (95% CI)†
Non-hospitalised COVID-19 vs non-COVID-19 AIS
No with VTEPrevalence (95% CI)No with VTEPrevalence (95% CI)No with VTEPrevalence (95% CI)
Total283 0346264.51 (4.18 to 4.87)3822.96 (2.68 to 3.27)66972.61 (2.55 to 2.68)<0.0011.62 (1.54 to 1.70)1.13 (1.03 to 1.23)
Age in groups
65–7493 060 (32.9)2315.39 (4.75 to 6.10)1493.62 (3.09 to 4.23)24582.90 (2.79 to 3.02)<0.0011.69 (1.56 to 1.83)1.24 (1.08 to 1.40)
75–84106 608 (37.7)2494.82 (4.27 to 5.44)1222.54 (2.13 to 3.02)26032.69 (2.59 to 2.80)<0.0011.68 (1.55 to 1.81)0.94 (0.76 to 1.12)
85+83 366 (29.5)1463.31 (2.82 to 3.88)1112.79 (2.32 to 3.36)16362.18 (2.08 to 2.29)<0.0011.44 (1.27 to 1.60)1.27 (1.08 to 1.46)
Sex
Male125 356 (44.3)3115.18 (4.65 to 5.77)1602.91 (2.50 to 3.39)29152.56 (2.47 to 2.65)<0.0011.89 (1.77 to 2.00)1.13 (0.98 to 1.29)
Female157 678 (55.7)3154.00 (3.59 to 4.46)2223.00 (2.63 to 3.41)37822.66 (2.57 to 2.74)<0.0011.43 (1.31 to 1.54)1.13 (1.00 to 1.27)
Race/ethnicity
Non-Hispanic white230 539 (81.5)4514.36 (3.98 to 4.77)3132.99 (2.68 to 3.34)52112.48 (2.42 to 2.55)<0.0011.70 (1.61 to 1.80)1.21 (1.09 to 1.32)
Non-Hispanic black27 673 (9.8)1256.53 (5.51 to 7.73)453.86 (2.89 to 5.14)9763.97 (3.73 to 4.22)<0.0011.56 (1.37 to 1.74)0.95 (0.66 to 1.24)
Hispanic13 702 (4.8)322.94 (2.07 to 4.13)151.91 (1.13 to 3.15)3102.62 (2.35 to 2.93)0.3881.06 (0.70 to 1.42)0.72 (0.21 to 1.24)
Other race11 120 (3.9)183.41 (2.13 to 5.36)91.86 (0.93 to 3.56)2001.98 (1.72 to 2.27)0.1091.60 (1.11 to 2.08)0.93 (0.27 to 1.59)
  • *P value comparing the difference in prevalence of VTE between the Medicare FFS beneficiaries hospitalised with AIS across three groups of COVID-19 status based on t-test.

  • †PRs were estimated using the log-binomial regression models adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, NIHSS score, history of medical conditions and tobacco use.

  • AIS, acute ischaemic stroke; NIHSS, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale; PR, prevalence ratio; VTE, venous thromboembolism.