Table 2

Associations between MRI markers and inflammatory biomarkers

Systemic biomarkers*Endothelial-related biomarkers†Media-related biomarkers‡
Model 1Model 2Model 1Model 2Model 1Model 2
R2 P valueR2 P valueR2 P valueR2 P valueR2 P valueR2 P value
WMH volume0.4140.0940.4250.1820.4240.0080.4350.0150.4150.0720.4280.052
  • The number of missing values for model 1 and model 2 is 98 and 121 for WMH volume, 0 and 23 for lacunes, 0 and 23 for CMBs, 0 and 23 for PVS and 117 and 140 for DMVs.

  • Model 1 is adjusted for age and sex; and model 2 is adjusted for age, sex, current smoking, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidaemia. For WMH volume and DMVs, the TIV is adjusted additionally.

  • *Systemic biomarkers include hsCRP, IL-6 and TNF-α.

  • †Endothelial-related biomarkers include E-selectin, P-selectin, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, CD40L, tHCY, Lp-PLA2 and YKL-40.

  • ‡Media-related biomarkers include MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-9 and OPN.

  • CD40L, CD40 ligand; CMBs, cerebral microbleeds; DMVs, deep medullary veins; hsCRP, high-sensitivity C reactive protein; ICAM-1, intercellular adhesion molecule 1; IL-6, interleukin 6; Lp-PLA2, lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2; MMP, matrix metalloproteinase; OPN, osteopontin; PVS, perivascular space; tHCY, total homocysteine; TIV, total intracranial volume; TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor α; VCAM-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1; WMH, white matter hyperintensity; YKL-40, chitinase-3-like-1 protein.