Table 1

Cohort description and bivariate analysis

3-month mRS score 0–1
3-month mRS score 2–6
P value
Sociodemographic features
Age, n247/24777/77170/1700.36*
Mean (SD), years63.8 (13.9)62.5 (14.2)64.3 (13.8)
Median (IQR), years68.0 (20.0)66.0 (22.0)68.5 (18.0)
Sex, n
Female, n (%)121/24744/7777/1700.084†
Comorbidities and risk factors, n
Renal insufficiency11/2421/7510/1670.18‡
History of stroke17/2415/7712/1641.00‡
Peripheral arterial disease9/2262/757/1510.72‡
Current smoking53/22112/7541/1460.046†
Baseline clinical status
NIHSS score, n245/24777/77168/170
Mean (SD), pts16.9 (4.3)15.6 (4.1)17.5 (4.2)0.0013*
Median (IQR), pts17.0 (7.0)15.0 (7.0)18.0 (7.0)
Blood pressure, n244/24777/77167/170
SBP, mean (SD), mm Hg144 (23)144 (22)144 (23)0.87*
DBP, mean (SD), mm Hg79 (16)77 (13)80 (17)0.26*
Heart rate, n242/24776/77166/170
Mean (SD), bpm75 (17)75 (16)76 (17)0.81*
Glycaemia, n239/24775/77164/170
Mean (SD), g/L1.24 (0.38)1.16 (0.26)1.27 (0.42)0.0099*
Temperature, n237/24773/77164/170
Mean (SD), °C36.6 (0.5)36.7 (0.6)36.6 (0.5)0.48*
Weight, n243/24777/77166/174
Mean (SD), kg75.7 (15.7)76.3 (14.4)75.4 (16.3)0.68*
Baseline imaging characteristics
Imaging techniques, n
Ischaemic core
ASPECTS score, n243/24776/77167/170
Mean (SD), pts7.1 (2.3)7.8 (1.8)6.8 (2.5)0.010§
DWI volume, n184/18962/63122/126
Mean (SD), mL40.2 (52.7)17.0 (16.7)52.0 (60.3)0.0003§
Median (IQR), mL14.8 (44.7)10.5 (14.0)19.1 (71.8)
Vascular territory of ischaemia, n
Superficial and deep MCA territory126/23728/7598/1620.0031‡
Superficial MCA26/23712/7514/162
Deep MCA78/23733/7545/162
Anterior choroid artery3/2372/751/162
Microvascular leukopathy
Fazekas score of DWM, n
Punctuate foci65/18320/6145/122
Beginning confluence29/1836/6123/122
Large confluent areas16/1835/6111/122
Occlusion site, n
Presence versus absence, n176/23455/75121/1590.65†
Length, mean (SD), mm14.3 (10.7)11.3 (8.3)15.7 (11.4)0.0008§
Clot burden score, mean (SD), pts7.0 (1.8)7.5 (1.5)6.8 (1.9)0.0016§
ASPECT-FVH score, n151/18951/63100/1260.74§
Mean (SD), pts3.6 (1.1)3.5 (1.0)3.6 (1.1)
Median (IQR), pts4.0 (1.0)4.0 (1.0)4.0 (1.0)
FVH/DWI mismatch
Presence versus absence, n135/17753/6182/1160.016†
Care workflow time
Onset-to-Imaging time, n242/24776/77166/170
Mean (SD), min116 (43)110.6 (50.8)119.0 (39.0)0.20*
Onset-to-thrombolysis time, n245/24777/77168/170
Mean (SD), min153 (40)142.2 (37.4)158.0 (41.0)0.0042*
MRI-to-thrombolysis time, n241/24776/77165/170
Mean (SD), min40 (20)39.4 (20.6)40.1 (19.4)0.81*
24-hour clinical and radiological features
NIHSS score, n230/24776/77154/170
Mean (SD), pts11.6 (8.2)3.7 (3.5)15.5 (7.0)<0.0001§
Median (IQR)11.0 (14.0)3.0 (6.0)16.0 (9.0)
ASPECTS, n235/24774/77161/170
Mean (SD), pts5.9 (2.7)7.6 (1.6)5.1 (2.8)<0.0001§
Haemorrhagic classification (SITS-MOST), n
Haemorrhagic infarction 126/2367/7419/162
Haemorrhagic infarction 226/2365/7421/162
Parenchymal haemorrhage 111/2363/748/162
Parenchymal haemorrhage 210/2361/749/162
  • 3-month excellent outcome after IVT alone was defined as a mRS score ≤1.

  • *Statistical analysis was performed with the Student’s t-test.

  • †χ2 test.

  • ‡Fisher’s exact test.

  • §Kruskal-Wallis test.

  • ¶Comparison between C1 segment and M1/M2 segment.

  • ACA, anterior cerebral artery; ASPECT-FVH score (0–6), extent of FLAIR vascular hyperintensities based on ASPECTS territories and without counting insula (higher is better); ASPECTS (0–10), Alberta Stroke Programme Early CT score (higher is better); C1, distal intracranial portion of internal carotid artery; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; DWI volume, diffusion-weighted imaging infarct volume; DWM, deep white matter; FVH/DWI mismatch, FLAIR vascular hyperintensities and diffusion-weighted imaging infarct hyperintensity mismatch; HMCAS, hyper-dense middle cerebral artery sign on CT; M1, first segment of the middle cerebral artery; M2, branches downstream of M1 segment of the middle cerebral artery; MCA, middle cerebral artery; mRS, modified Rankin Scale; NIHSS score (0–42), National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score; pts, patients; SBP, systolic blood pressure; SITS-MOST, Safe Implementation of Thrombolysis in Stroke MOnitoring STudY; SVS, susceptibility vessel sign on MRI; clot burden score (0–10): higher is better.