Table 1

List of studies with sex-specific outcomes

StudyFemale/maleInterventionsPer cent stenosisOutcome(s) assessed
ECST11850/2168CEA/BMT0%–99%Model of stroke-free life expectancy stratified by age and per cent stenosis
NASCET12873/2012CEA/BMT>70%; 50%–69%;<50%5-year risk of ipsilateral stroke stratified by per cent stenosis
SPACE13 14338/858CEA/CAS>50%
  • 30-day risk of death of any cause, ipsilateral stroke or haemorrhage

  • 30-day risk of stroke and death and 2-year risk of ipsilateral ischaemic stroke (combined)

EVA-3S15130/397CEA/CAS>60%30-day risk of death, any stroke and 4-year risk of ipsilateral stroke (combined)
CAVATAS16152/352CEA/CAS>60%8-year risk of any stroke or perioperative death (combined)
ICSS17503/1207CEA/CAS>50%120-day risk of stroke, death or myocardial infarction (combined)
CREST3 18872/1630CEA/CAS>50%
>60%
  • 30-day risk of myocardial infarction, stroke or death

  • 4-year risk of myocardial infarction, stroke or death

  • 30-day (myocardial infarction, stroke or death) and 10-year risk of ipsilateral stroke (combined)

Pooled individual patient data meta-analysis
NASCET and ESCT4 51718/4175CEA/BMT>50%
  • 5-year relative risk of ipsilateral ischaemic stroke or death, stratified by time from last symptomatic event to randomisation

  • 5-year risk of stroke and death in surgery patients, stratified by per cent stenosis and time from last symptomatic event to randomisation

  • 5-year risk of ipsilateral ischaemic stroke and any stroke or death within 30 days of randomisation (combined)

  • 5-year risk of ipsilateral ischaemic stroke and any stroke or death within 30 days of randomisation (combined), stratified by per cent stenosis

EVA-3S, SPACE, ICSS, CREST trials91437/3317CEA/CASMultiple thresholds
  • 120-day risk of any stroke or death and 5-year risk of ipsilateral stroke (combined)

  • 5-year risk of ipsilateral stroke

EVA-3S, SPACE, BACASS, ICSS, CREST trials101466/3395CEA/CASMultiple thresholds30-day risk of death or any stroke (combined)
  • BACASS, Basel Carotid Artery Stenting Study; BMT, best medical therapy; CAS, carotid artery stenting; CAVATAS, Carotid And Vertebral Artery Transluminal Angioplasty Study; CEA, carotid endarterectomy; CREST, Carotid Revascularisation Endarterectomy Versus Stenting Trial; ECST, European Carotid Surgery Trial; EVA-3S, Endarterectomy Versus Angioplasty in Patients with Symptomatic Severe Carotid Stenosis; ICSS, International Carotid Stenting Study; NASCET, North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial; SPACE, Stent-Supported Percutaneous Angioplasty of the Carotid Artery Versus Endarterectomy.