Table 1

Baseline characteristics of the participants with and without metabolic syndrome (MetS)

OverallParticipants with MetSParticipants without MetSP value*
(n = 943)(n =496)(n =447)
Demographic and clinical characteristics
 Age, mean (SD), years55.6 (9.2)56.8 (9.2)54.3 (8.9)<0.001
 Male, n (%)340 (36.1)163 (32.9)177 (39.6)0.03
 Current smoker, n (%)213 (22.7)99 (20.1)114 (25.6)0.04
 Body mass index, mean (SD)26.5 (3.7)28.1 (3.2)24.70 (3.4)<0.001
MetS-related characteristics
 Waist circumference, mean (SD), cm89.4 (10.6)94.5 (8.1)83.7 (10.0)<0.001
 HDL-C, mean (SD), mmol/L1.3 (0.3)1.2 (0.2)1.4 (0.3)<0.001
 Triglyceride, median (IQR), mmol/L1.3 (0.9, 1.9)1.8 (1.2, 2.5)1.0 (0.7, 1.3)<0.001
 SBP, mean (SD), mm Hg132.5 (18.7)138.0 (18.0)126.3 (17.6)<0.001
 DBP, mean (SD), mm Hg78.2 (10.5)80.3 (10.2)76.0 (10.3)<0.001
 Fasting blood glucose, mean (SD), mmol/L6.1 (1.9)6.5 (2.2)5.6 (1.3)<0.001
  • *Differences (p<0.05) between groups were compared using the t-test (for means), Mann-Whitney U test (for medians) and χ2 test (for percentages).

  • DBP, diastolic blood pressure; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; MetS, metabolic syndrome; SBP, systolic blood pressure.