Table 2

Risk factors for worsened neurological function in brainstem cavernous malformations

Variable (%)nWorsened (n=71, %)Univariate†
RR (95% CI)
P valueMultivariate†‡
RR (95% CI)
P value
Male37736 (9.5)ReferenceReference
Female32135 (10.9)1.159 (0.709 to 1.894)0.5551.074 (0.634 to 1.819)0.792
Age (per 1 year)1.014 (0.995 to 1.032)0.1451.020 (1.000 to 1.041)0.051
Without hypertension60263 (10.5)Reference
Hypertension968 (8.3)0.778 (0.360 to 1.679)0.522
Duration of symptoms (per 0.1 months)1.004 (1.000 to 1.008)0.0641.004 (0.999 to 1.009)0.101
Without prior haemorrhage181 (5.6)Reference
With prior haemorrhage68070 (10.3)1.951 (0.256 to 14.882)0.519
Without haemorrhage at enrolment19014 (7.4)Reference
Haemorrhage at enrolment50857 (11.2)1.589 (0.863 to 2.924)0.137
Without FND at enrolment1099 (8.3)Reference
FND at enrolment58962 (10.5)1.307 (0.629 to 2.715)0.473
mRS score at enrolment (per one score)0.939 (0.756 to 1.168)0.573
Lesion size (per 1 mm)2.343 (1.643 to 3.341)<0.001*1.263 (0.806 to 1.979)0.309
Not crossing axial midpoint52438 (7.3)ReferenceReference
Crossing axial midpoint17433 (19.0)2.993 (1.811 to 4.948)<0.001*2.325 (1.332 to 4.060)0.003*
Without venous anomaly46138 (8.2)ReferenceReference
Developmental venous anomaly23733 (13.9)1.801 (1.097 to 2.955)0.020*1.776 (1.037 to 3.041)0.036*
Depth (superficial-seated)39551 (12.9)1.595 (1.074 to 2.367)0.021*1.194 (0.774 to 1.841)0.423
Without oedema35633 (9.3)Reference
Perilesional oedema34238 (11.1)1.223 (0.748 to 2.001)0.422
Zabramski classification1.313 (0.935 to 1.846)0.116
 Type III/IV18213 (7.1)Reference
 Type II32635 (10.7)1.564 (0.805 to 3.038)0.187
 Type I19023 (12.1)1.790 (0.878 to 3.652)1.790
  • Bold indicates statistical significance.

  • *P<0.05.

  • †Binary logistic regression (method: Enter); risk factors, entered into the multivariate binary logistic regression, included gender, age, duration of symptoms, lesion size, crossing axial midpoint, developmental venous anomaly and depth of the lesion.

  • ‡Adjustment for duration of follow-up.

  • FND, focal neurological deficit; mRS, modified Rankin Scale; RR, relative risk.