Table 3

Summary of outcomes

SubgroupNCilostazolControlRR (95% CI)P valueI2 (%)Test for subgroup differences
Ischaemic stroke recurrence
 AOverall18217/5724317/57050.69 (0.58–0.81)<0.00010NA
 BCIL SAPT vs SAPT7131/2844168/28370.78 (0.62–0.97)0.030χ32=7.50, p=0.06, I2=60.0%
CIL DAPT vs SAPT843/186482/18530.52 (0.36–0.75)0.00050
CIL DAPT vs DAPT110/2326/2251.62 (0.60–4.37)0.34NA
CIL vs No CIL233/78461/7900.54 (0.36–0.82)0.0030
 CStroke onset <3 days416/112024/11220.67 (0.36–1.25)0.200χ12=0.01, p=0.93, I2=0%
Stroke onset >3 days14201/4604293/45830.69 (0.56–0.84)0.00028
 DShort term (<3 months)37/6558/6270.78 (0.29–2.12)0.630χ12=0.07, p=0.80, I2=0%
Long term (≥3 months)15210/5069309/50780.68 (0.58–0.81)<0.00010
 ESymptomatic ICAS314/38212/3731.10 (0.45–2.68)0.8424χ22=1.33, p=0.52, I2=0%
LACI22/1311/1081.08 (0.14–8.56)0.950
Others/mixed/unknown13201/5211304/52240.67 (0.56–0.79)<0.000010
Any stroke recurrence
 AOverall18250/5724394/57050.64 (0.54–0.74)<0.000010NA
 BStroke onset <3 days420/112029/11220.70 (0.39–1.23)0.210χ12=0.11, p=0.75, I2=0%
Stroke onset >3 days14230/4604365/45830.63 (0.54–0.74)<0.000010
 CShort term (<3 months)39/6559/6270.91 (0.37–2.24)0.830χ12=0.61, p=0.43, I2=0%
Long term (≥3 months)15241/5069385/50780.63 (0.54–0.74)<0.000010
 DSymptomatic ICAS315/38214/3730.96 (0.27–3.45)0.9565χ22=0.71, p=0.70, I2=0%
LACI22/1311/1081.08 (0.14–8.56)0.950
Others/mixed/unknown13233/5211379/52240.62 (0.53–0.73)<0.000010
Intracranial haemorrhage
 AOverall1837/572486/57050.46 (0.31–0.68)<0.00010NA
 BStroke onset <3 days44/11205/11220.91 (0.24–3.53)0.890χ12=1.05, p=0.31, I2=4.8%
Stroke onset >3 days1433/460481/45830.43 (0.29–0.65)<0.00010
 CShort term (<3 months)32/6551/6272.00 (0.18–22.03)0.57NAχ12=1.48, p=0.22, I2=32.3%
Long term (≥3 months)1535/506985/50780.44 (0.30–0.66)<0.00010
 DSymptomatic ICAS31/3823/3730.46 (0.06–3.57)0.460χ12=0.00, p=1.00, I2=0%
LACI20/1310/108NANANA
Others/mixed/unknown1336/521183/52240.46 (0.31–0.68)0.00010
Major haemorrhagic events
 AOverall1444/403193/40100.49 (0.34–0.70)<0.00010NA
 BStroke onset <3 days47/112013/11220.60 (0.24–1.52)0.280χ12=0.23, p=0.63, I2=0%
Stroke onset >3 days1037/291180/28880.47 (0.32–0.69)0.00010
 CShort term (<3 months)34/6555/6270.80 (0.22–2.97)0.74NAχ12=0.59, p=0.44, I2=0%
Long term (≥3 months)1140/337688/33830.47 (0.32–0.68)<0.00010
 DSymptomatic ICAS36/3829/3730.67 (0.17–2.59)0.5637χ12=0.24, p=0.62, I2=0%
LACI20/1310/108NANANA
Others/mixed/unknown938/351884/35290.47 (0.32–0.68)<0.00010
Mortality
 AOverall1564/502972/50170.90 (0.64–1.25)0.530NA
 BStroke onset <3 days23/4821/4832.33 (0.34–15.82)0.390χ12=0.98, p=0.32, I2=0%
Stroke onset >3 days1361/454771/45340.87 (0.62–1.22)0.430
 CShort term (<3 months)20/550/26NANANANA
Long term (≥3 months)1364/497472/49910.90 (0.64–1.25)0.530
 DSymptomatic ICAS32/3823/3730.67 (0.11–4.06)0.660χ12=0.11, p=0.74, I2=0%
LACI20/1310/108NANANA
Others/mixed/unknown1062/451669/45360.91 (0.65–1.27)0.580
MACE
 AOverall13184/3826276/38420.67 (0.56–0.81)<0.00010NA
 BStroke onset <3 days425/112033/11220.76 (0.45–1.27)0.300χ12=0.18, p=0.67, I2=0%
Stroke onset >3 days9159/2706243/27200.67 (0.52–0.86)0.00220
 CShort term (<3 months)212/61312/6121.00 (0.45–2.21)1.00NAχ12=1.03, p=0.31, I2=3.0%
Long term (≥3 months)11172/3213264/32300.66 (0.55–0.79)<0.00010
 DSymptomatic ICAS217/29912/2931.38 (0.67–2.85)0.380χ22=4.22, p=0.12, I2=52.6%
LACI11/891/931.04 (0.07–16.45)0.98NA
Others/mixed/unknown10166/3438263/34560.64 (0.53–0.77)<0.000010
  • CIL, cilostazol; DAPT, dual antiplatelet therapy; ICAS, intracranial arterial stenosis; LACI, lacunar infarction; No CIL, placebo or best medical therapy; RR, risk ratio; SAPT, single antiplatelet therapy.