Table 2

Details of included studies

Study IDTime to randomisation/treatmentDuration of treatment/ follow-upType of stroke
CilostazolControl
Aoki 2019 (ADS)22Within 48 hours
Cilostazol: 10.1 hours (IQR 4.6–20.0)
Control: 11.5 hours (IQR 4.8–20.9)
14 days, 3 monthsSymptomatic ICAS (23%)
Large-artery atherosclerosis (13%),
LACI (46%), branch atheromatous disease (13%)
Symptomatic ICAS (22%)
Large-artery atherosclerosis (15%),
LACI (43%), branch atheromatous disease (16%)
Blair 2019 (LACI-1)23Within 4 years
Median: 203 days (range 6–920)
Treatment: 6–9 weeks
Follow-up: 11 weeks
LACILACI
Gotoh 2000 (CSPS)241–6 months
Cilostazol: 83.0 days (range 7–1805)
Control: 82.4 days (range 8–1079)
Mean follow-up duration:
Cilostazol: 651.8 days
Control: 569.7 days
Treatment duration:
Cilostazol: 632.2 (467.7) days Control: 695.1 (456.3) days
Atherothrombotic (14.1%), LACI (75.0%), mixed (9.0%)Atherothrombotic (13.1%), LACI (73.8%), mixed (11.4%)
Guo 2009251–6 months12 months
Han 2013 (ECLIPse)26Within 7 days
Median: 5 days (78.3% of patients were randomised within 7 days)
90 daysLACILACI
Huang 2008 (CASISP)271–6 months
Cilostazol: 77.26 (50.05) days
Control: 79.72 (51.96) days
12–18 months (average: 740 person-years)
Johkura 2012281–6 months6 months
Kim 2018 (PICASSO)*29Within 180 days
Cilostazol: 18 days (IQR 8–40)
Control: 17 days (IQR 7–35)
1.9 years (IQR 1.0–3.0)Ischaemic stroke (95%), TIA (5%)Ischaemic stroke (94%), TIA (6%)
Kwon 2005 (TOSS)30Within 2 weeks6 monthsICASICAS
Kwon 2011 (TOSS-2)31Within 2 weeks
Cilostazol: 8.03 (3.34) days
Control: 7.82 (3.15) days
7 monthsICASICAS
Lee 2011 (CAIST)32Within 48 hours
Cilostazol: 33 (12) hours
Control: 35 (11) hours
90 daysLarge-artery disease (32%), small-vessel disease (55%), cardioembolism (1%), other determined aetiology (<1%), undetermined (12%)Large-artery disease (25%), small-vessel disease (62%), cardioembolism (1%), other determined aetiology (<1%), undetermined (12%)
Lee 201733Within 7 days3 monthsAtherosclerosis (9.4%), small-artery disease (87.5%), TIA (3.1%)Atherosclerosis (2.9%), small-artery disease (87.5%), TIA (5.9%), unknown (8.8%)
Nakamura 201234Within 48 hours
Cilostazol: 25 (12) hours
Control: 23 (14) hours
6 monthsLarge-artery atherosclerosis (21%), small-vessel occlusion (47%), other determined or undetermined aetiology (32%)Large-artery atherosclerosis (18%), small-vessel occlusion (47%), other determined or undetermined aetiology (34%)
Ohnuki 201735Within 7 days4 weeksAtherothrombosis (15%), LACI (62%), TIA (8%), unknown (15%)Atherothrombosis (45%), LACI (45%), TIA (9%)
Shimizu 201336Within 24 hours3 monthsAtherothrombotic (30.7%), LACI (64.1%), others (5.2%)Atherothrombotic (25.0%), LACI (70.7%), others (4.3%)
Shinohara 2010 (CSPS 2)37Within 26 weeks (6 months)1–5 years
Mean: 29 (16) months
Atherothrombotic (33%), LACI (65%), others (3%)Atherothrombotic (31%), LACI (65%), others (3%)
Toyoda 2019 (CSPS.com)†388–180 days
Cilostazol: 27 days (IQR 13–63)
Control: 25 days (IQR 13–64)
0.5–3.5 years
Median: 1.4 (IQR 0.8–2.2)
ICAS (30%), ECAS (12%)
Atherothrombotic (42%), LACI (50%), others/unknown (8%)
ICAS (29%), ECAS (14%)
Atherothrombotic (42%), LACI (49%), others/unknown (9%)
Uchiyama 2015 (CATHARSIS)392 weeks to 6 months2 years
Mean: 762 days
ICASICAS
  • Data are in median (IQR), mean (range) or mean (SD) unless otherwise stated.

  • *Only patients with asymptomatic or previous intracerebral haemorrhage were included.

  • †Only patients with high-risk ischaemic stroke were included.

  • ICAS, intracranial arterial stenosis; LACI, lacunar infarction; TIA, transient ischaemic attack.