Table 1

Characteristics of included studies

Study IDCountrySample size, ITT (% male)Age (intervention)Age (control)InterventionControl
Aoki 2019 (ADS)*22Japan1201 (66%)69 (IQR 60–77)69 (IQR 61–78)Cilostazol 200 mg + aspirin 81–200 mgAspirin 81–200 mg
Blair 2019 (LACI-1)23UK57 (68%)Mean of all participants: 66.1 (11.1)Cilostazol 100 mg BD + aspirin/clopidogrelAspirin/clopidogrel
Gotoh 2000 (CSPS)24Japan1067 (66%)65.2 (8.7)65.1 (8.8)Cilostazol 100 mg BDPlacebo
Guo 200925China68 (35%)59.44 (10.63)62.02 (11.12)Cilostazol 100 mg BDAspirin 100 mg
Han 2013 (ECLIPse)26Korea182 (25%)64.63 (9.07)65.48 (9.92)Cilostazol 100 mg BD + aspirin 100 mgAspirin 100 mg
Huang 2008 (CASISP)27China719 (69%)60.14 (10.05)60.31 (9.71)CilostazolAspirin
Johkura 201228Japan106 (43%)76.7 (9.8)73.7 (9.4)Cilostazol 200 mgAspirin 100 mg
Kim 2018 (PICASSO)29South Korea, Hong Kong, Philippines1534 (62%)65.5 (10.9)65.8 (10.7)Cilostazol 100 mg BDAspirin 100 mg
Kwon 2005 (TOSS)30South Korea135 (61%)62.28 (10.42)62.54 (8.97)Cilostazol 100 mg BD + aspirin 100 mgAspirin 100 mg
Kwon 2011 (TOSS-2)314 East Asian countries457 (51%)66.42 (11.33)64.58 (11.11)Cilostazol 100 mg BD + aspirin 75–150 mgClopidogrel 75 mg + aspirin 75–150 mg
Lee 2011 (CAIST)32Korea458 (61%)63 (12)63 (12)Cilostazol 200 mgAspirin 300 mg
Lee 201733Korea80 (65%)57.4 (12.7)59.5 (11.7)Cilostazol 100 mg BDAspirin 100 mg
Nakamura 201234Japan76 (74%)66 (12)67 (10)Cilostazol 100 mg BD + aspirin 300 mgAspirin 300 mg
Ohnuki 201735Japan24 (71%)60.5 (10)63.6 (9.1)Cilostazol 200 mg + aspirin 100 mgAspirin 100 mg
Shimizu 201336Japan507 (67%)66.2 (9.4)66.6 (8.9)Cilostazol 200 mg + optimal medical treatmentOptimal medical treatment
Shinohara 2010 (CSPS 2)37Japan2716 (72%)63.5 (9.2)63.4 (9.0)Cilostazol 100 mg BDAspirin 81 mg
Toyoda 2019 (CSPS.com)38Japan1879 (70%)69.6 (9.2)69.7 (9.2)Cilostazol 100 mg BD + aspirin 81–100 mg/ clopidogrel 50–75 mgAspirin 81–100 mg/ clopidogrel 50–75 mg
Uchiyama 2015 (CATHARSIS)39Japan163 (66%)68.3 (range 45–84)68.3 (range 50–82)Cilostazol 200 mg + aspirin 100 mgAspirin 100 mg
  • All data are in mean (SD) or median (IQR/range).

  • *After 14 days, both arms were swapped to cilostazol 200 mg until 3 months. Where possible, we analysed data at 14 days instead of 3 months.

  • ITT, intention to treat.