Table 1

Baseline characteristics of the study population

VariableAllNon-diabetesDiabetesP valueStandardised mean difference
Subjects (n)421 768381 40640 362
Sex (male)232 786 (55.2)207 633 (54.4)25 153 (62.3)<0.0010.160
Age (years)53.71±9.5153.32±9.4157.37±9.69<0.0010.423
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)127.2±18.0126.6±17.8133.1±18.7<0.0010.358
Fasting glucose (mmol/L)5.43±1.585.09±0.708.71±3.11<0.0011.608
Total cholesterol (mmol/L)5.17±0.975.16±0.965.27±1.10<0.0010.112
Body mass index (kg/m2)<0.0010.210
 Low: <18.59779 (2.3)9072 (2.4)707 (1.8)
 Normal: 18.5–25266 425 (63.2)244 193 (64.0)22 232 (55.1)
 Obesity 1: 25–30134 001 (31.8)118 461 (31.1)15 540 (38.5)
 Obesity 2: ≥3011 563 (2.7)9680 (2.5)1883 (4.7)
Smoking habit<0.0010.102
 Never smoking290 852 (69.0)264 763 (69.4)26 089 (64.6)
 Past smoking36 851 (8.7)32 932 (8.6)3919 (9.7)
 Current smoking94 065 (22.3)83 711 (21.9)10 354 (25.7)
Alcohol consumption (frequency/week)<0.0010.101
 <1 time235 557 (55.8)213 465 (56.0)22 092 (54.7)
 1–2 times139 297 (33.0)126 677 (33.2)12 620 (31.3)
 3–4 times28 867 (6.8)25 551 (6.7)3316 (8.2)
 ≥5 times18 047 (4.3)15 713 (4.1)2334 (5.8)
Exercise (days/week)<0.0010.111
 <1225 258 (53.4)204 242 (53.5)21 016 (52.1)
 1–3154 795 (36.7)140 716 (36.9)14 079 (34.9)
 ≥541 715 (9.9)36 448 (9.6)5267 (13.0)
Household income<0.0010.029
 T1 (low)146 907 (34.8)132 657 (34.8)14 250 (35.3)
 T2121 170 (28.7)109 269 (28.6)11 901 (29.5)
 T3 (high)153 691 (36.4)139 480 (36.6)14 211 (35.2)
Treatment with antihypertensive agents85 443 (20.3)71 047 (18.6)14 396 (35.7)<0.0010.390
Treatment with statins19 536 (4.6)15 183 (4.0)4353 (10.8)<0.0010.262
  • Data are n (%) or mean±SD. P values and standardised mean difference are derived from comparisons between diabetes and non-diabetes.