Table 1

Baseline characteristics

Pre-existing or non-existing carotid plaqueNewly developed carotid plaqueP value
Stable plaqueVulnerable plaque
N1622749576
Age, years46.72 (43.28–52.94)54.60 (48.02–62.96)59.97 (51.25–70.90)<0.001
Male, %810 (49.94)285 (38.05)177 (30.73)<0.001
SBP, mm Hg120.0 (110.0–130.0)130.0 (119.3–140.0)130.0 (120.0–147.0)<0.001
DBP, mm Hg80.0 (70.7–85.0)80.0 (78.7–90.0)80.0 (77.7–90.0)<0.001
BMI, kg/m224.42 (22.37–26.75)24.95 (22.90–27.31)24.84 (22.77–27.12)<0.001
FBG, mg/dL5.09 (4.64–5.60)5.10 (4.61–5.78)5.09 (4.63–5.70)0.448
Uric acid, μmol/L262.0 (214.0–319.0)294.0 (240.0–356.0)299.5 (248.0–363.5)<0.001
TC, mg/dL4.82 (4.20–5.41)5.01 (4.38–5.62)5.09 (4.63–5.70)<0.001
TG, mg/dL1.19 (0.84–1.74)1.30 (0.91–2.04)1.35 (0.95–1.94)<0.001
HDLC, mg/dL1.53 (1.32–1.77)1.49 (1.28–1.76)1.49 (1.30–1.73)0.137
LDLC, mg/dL2.30 (1.85–2.70)2.24 (1.81–2.74)2.31 (1.83–2.80)0.459
non-HDLC, mg/dL3.26 (2.70–3.87)3.49 (2.82–4.09)3.52 (2.90–4.13)<0.001
Physical activity<0.001
 None162 (9.99)116 (15.49)134 (23.26)
 Seldom1301 (80.21)507 (67.69)337 (58.51)
 Always159 (9.80)126 (16.82)105 (18.23)
Income status<0.001
 <600450 (27.74)244 (32.58)235 (40.80)
 600–800900 (55.49)353 (47.13)255 (44.27)
 800–1000136 (8.38)73 (9.75)39 (6.77)
 >1000136 (8.38)79 (10.55)47 (8.16)
Current smoker, n (%)395 (24.35)228 (30.44)170 (29.51)<0.001
Current drinker, n (%)574 (35.39)271 (36.18)192 (33.33)0.281
Medical history
 Diabetes mellitus22 (1.36)36 (4.81)30 (5.21)<0.001
 Hypertension115 (7.09)122 (16.29)100 (17.36)<0.001
 Hypercholesterolaemia80 (4.93)85 (11.35)60 (10.42)<0.001
Antihypertensive medication, n (%)93 (5.73)108 (14.42)94 (16.32)<0.001
Antidiabetic medication, n (%)17 (1.05)30 (4.01)26 (4.51)<0.001
Lipid-lowering medication, n (%)9 (0.55)14 (1.87)10 (1.74)<0.001
  • BMI, body mass index; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; FBG, fasting blood glucose; HDLC, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDLC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; SBP, systolic blood pressure; TC, total cholesterol; TG, triglyceride.