Table 1

Published studies of mesenchymal stem cell derived exosomes in ischaemic stroke

AnimalsStroke modelTime of treatmentRoutes of exosome deliveryExosome modificationsProposed mechanismsRef
Rat2 hours tMCAO24 hours after ischaemiaTail veinNoPromote neurite remodelling, neurogenesis and angiogenesis80
Mouse30 min tMCAO1, 3 and 5 days after ischaemiaFemoral veinNoImmunomodulation82
Rat30 min tMCAO1, 3 and 5 days after ischaemiaFemoral veinNoImmunomodulation81
RatpMCAO48 hours after ischaemiaCommon carotid arteryNoPromote angiogenesis, neurogenesis, anti-inflammation83
Ovine fetuses25 min global hypoxia-ischaemia1 hour and 4 days after ischaemiaIntravenouslyNoPreserve baroreceptor reflex sensitivity and reduce white matter injury152
Rat2 hours tMCAO24 hours after ischaemiaIntravenouslyEnriched in miR-17-92 clusterEnhance oligodendrogenesis, neurogenesis and neurite remodelling97
Mouse30 min tMCAOOnce every other day for 14 days after ischaemiaTail veinRGD-exosomes loaded with miR-210Promote VEGF expression and angiogenesis147
MousePhotothrombosis24 hours after ischaemiaTail veinRVG-exosomes loaded with miR-124Promote neurogenesis98
RatEndothelin-1 subcortical stroke24 hours after ischaemiaTail veinNoPromote white matter repair90
Mouse5 min bilateral common carotid arteries occlusionRight before ischaemiaIntracerebroventricular injectionNoInhibition of Cox-2 expression89
Rat2 hours tMCAOImmediately after ischaemiaTail veinNoReduce oedema84
RatPerinatal brain injuryBefore ischaemiaIntranasallyNoNeuroprotection, anti-inflammation88
Rat2 hours tMCAO24 hours after ischaemiaIntra-arteriallyEnriched with miR-134bPromote neurite remodelling153
Macaca mulattaCortical hand cerebral injury24 hours and 14 days post injuryIntravenouslyNoNot studied154
Aged macaca mulattaCortical hand cerebral injury24 hours and 14 days post injuryIntravenouslyNoReduce inflammation, shift microglia towards restorative functions85
Macaca mulattaCortical hand cerebral injury24 hours and 14 days post injuryIntravenouslyNoDampen injury-related hyperexcitability restores excitatory–inhibitory balance86
  • RVG, rabies virus glycoprotein; tMCAO, transient middle cerebral artery occlusion; VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor.