Table 2

Published studies of neural stem cell derived exosomes in ischaemic stroke

AnimalsStroke modelTime of treatmentRoutes of exosome deliveryExosome modificationsProposed mechanismsRef
MouseTE-MCAO2 hours, 14 hours, 38 hours/6 hours, 24 hours, 48 hours (in aged mice) after ischaemiaTail veinNoImmunomodulation, inhibit inflammation99
Mouse1 hour tMCAO2 hours after ischaemiaInternal jugular veinNoPreserve astrocyte function100
PigpMCAO2 hours, 14 hours, 24 hours after ischaemiaIntravenouslyNoProtect the integrity of BBB and WM101
  • BBB, blood-brain barrier; pMCAO, permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion; TE-MCAO, thromboembolic middle cerebral artery occlusion; WM, white matter.