Table 4

Published studies of other cell derived exosomes in ischaemic stroke

AnimalsStroke modelTime of treatmentSource of exosomesRoutes of exosome deliveryExosome modificationsProposed mechanismsRef
MousepMCAO1 hour after ischaemiaAstrocyteTail veinNoAnti-apoptosis107
Mouse90 min tMCAO30 min after ischaemiaBrain microvascular ECsTail veinNoProtect BBB integrity, inhibit astrocyte activation109
MousePhotothrombosis3 days after ischaemiaBrain endothelial cellsIntravenouslyEnriched with miR-126Promote angiogenesis, neurogenesis and M2 macrophage polarisation114
Rat2 hours tMCAOImmediately after ischaemiaMacrophage cell lineTail veinNoPromote M2 microglial polarisation157
Mouse90 min tMCAO1, 2, 3 days after ischaemiaMicroglia cell lineTail veinNoPromote neuronal survival116
  • pMCAO, permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion; tMCAO, transient middle cerebral artery occlusion.