Table 2

Comparison of external ventricular drain (EVD) subgroups

Variable*Mechanical compression
(n=21)
Primary IVH
(n=18)
P value
Demographics
 Total patients2118
 Male sex15 (71.4%)12 (66.6%)0.748
Age60.1±8.5 (47–76)54.8±18.1 (24–85)0.267
Length of hospital stay, in days17.1±16.0 (0.83–56.6)21.6±13.7 (0.7–44.9)0.358
Glasgow Coma Scale on admission7.47±3.4 (3–14)7.88±3.73 (3–14)0.722
ICH location
 Basal ganglia versus thalamic4 (19.0%) versus 16 (76.2%)4 (22.0%) versus 3 (16.6%)0.145
 Lobar versus thalamic1 (4.8%) versus 16 (76.32%)11 (52.3%) versus 3 (16.6%)<0.001
 Basal ganglia versus lobar4 (19.0%) versus 1 (4.8%)4 (22.0%) versus 11 (52.3%)0.109
ICH Score
 Score 2 versus 0–17 (33.3%) versus 4 (19.0%)8 (44.4%) versus 1 (5.5%)0.319
 Score 3 versus 0–18 (38.1%) versus 4 (19.0%)8 (44.4%) versus 1 (6.3%)0.338
 Score 4 versus 0–12 (9.5%) versus 4 (19.0%)1 (6.3%) versus 1 (6.3%)0.999
Type of hydrocephalus
 Primary mechanical compression4 (19.0%)
 Mixed mechanical compression17 (80.9%)
 Primary IVH compression18 (100%)
ICH volume, in mm3
 Average (range)42.1±52.4 (3.9–189.8)30.6±26.5 (5.2–89.5)0.384
 ICH volume greater than 30 mm39 (42.8%)7 (38.9%)0.999
Modified Rankin Score at Discharge Score 4–621 (100%)14 (77.8%)0.037
In-hospital mortality9 (42.8%)7 (38.9%)0.802
Meningitis (+)1 (4.8%)5 (27.7%)0.078
Intraventricular alteplase4 (19.0%)7 (38.8%)0.170
Surgical clot evacuation2 (9.5%)3 (16.6%)0.810
Modified Graeb Score11.0±6.9 (0–25)15.7±8.0 (1–27)0.059
Opening pressure (in mm Hg)16.1±8.7 (6–42)24.1±23.6 (8–80)0.182
EVD length of treatment
 Average (range)8.8±6.4 (0.8–21.45)7.7±4.4 (0.7–15.4)0.556
 Length of treatment >7 days12 (57.1%)10 (55.5%)0.999
Days to radiographic opening of third ventricle13.2±4.7 (5.9–21.6)7.3±4.5 (1.2–17.0)0.006
Shunt dependent hydrocephalus2 (9.5%)0 (0%)0.490
Withdrawal of care
 Overall rate of withdrawal7 (33.3%)4 (22.0%)0.497
 Withdrawal under 7 days7 (33.3%)1 (6.3%)0.024
  • Bold indicate p values <0.05.

  • *Categorical data are presented as number (%) and continuous data as the mean±standard deviation (range)

  • ICH, intracerebral haemorrhage; IVH, intraventricular haemorrhage.