Table 1

Baseline characteristics of included patients stratified into quintiles according to CO2CP

VariableOverallQuintiles of CO2CP, mmol/LP value
Q1Q2Q3Q4Q5
n95311914 (20.08)1956 (20.52)1874 (19.66)1869 (19.61)1918 (20.12)
CO2CP, mmol/L24.9 (23.0–27.0)21.1 (20.0–22.0)23.3 (23.0–23.8)25.0 (24.5–25.2)26.4 (26.0–27.0)28.8 (28.0–30.0)<0.0001
Age, years62 (54–70)62 (53–70)62 (54–70)62 (54–69)62 (55–70)63 (56–70)0.0008
Men, n (%)6556 (68.79)1347 (70.38)1308 (66.87)1319 (70.38)1278 (68.38)1304 (67.99)0.0738
Body mass index, kg/m224.51 (22.68–26.67)24.66 (22.86–26.71)24.62 (22.86–26.7)24.49 (22.68–26.67)24.57 (22.66–26.57)24.49 (22.49–26.64)0.1261
Medical history, n (%)
 Hypertension5958 (62.51)1170 (61.13)1249 (63.85)1190 (63.50)1149 (61.48)1200 (62.57)0.3187
 Diabetes mellitus2243 (23.53)421 (22.00)456 (23.31)452 (24.12)459 (24.56)455 (23.72)0.3986
 Dyslipidaemia801 (8.4)133 (6.95)156 (7.98)160 (8.54)178 (9.52)174 (9.07)0.0416
 Stroke or TIA2190 (22.98)393 (20.53)447 (22.85)436 (23.27)434 (23.22)480 (25.03)0.0246
 Atrial fibrillation/flutter621 (6.52)152 (7.94)123 (6.29)125 (6.67)109 (5.83)112 (5.84)0.0497
 Peripheral vascular disease66 (0.69)14 (0.73)9 (0.46)13 (0.69)16 (0.86)14 (0.73)0.6727
 Heart failure64 (4.81)14 (5.51)15 (5.66)12 (4.44)9 (3.46)14 (4.96)0.7691
 COPD81 (0.85)15 (0.78)13 (0.66)16 (0.85)12 (0.64025 (1.30)0.1625
Stroke type/subtype, n (%)
 Ischaemic stroke8832 (92.67)1789 (93.47)1820 (93.05)1735 (92.58)1739 (93.04)1749 (91.19)0.0661
 Transient ischaemic attack699 (7.33)125 (6.53)136 (6.95)139 (7.42)130 (6.96)169 (8.81)
TOAST, n (%)
 Large-artery atherosclerosis2400 (25.18)520 (27.17)477 (24.39)486 (25.93)452 (24.18)465 (24.24)0.3994
 Cardioembolism544 (5.71)123 (6.43)112 (5.73)104 (5.55)99 (5.30)106 (5.53)
 Small-vessel occlusion1966 (20.63)355 (18.55)396 (20.25)391 (20.86)402 (21.51)422 (22.00)
 Other determined aetiology126 (1.32)26 (1.36)30 (1.53)22 (1.17)26 (1.39)22 (1.15)
 Undetermined aetiology4495 (47.16)890 (46.50)941 (48.11)871 (46.48)890 (47.62)903 (47.08)
Current smoker, n (%)3089 (32.41)684 (35.74)634 (32.41)621 (33.14)577 (30.87)573 (29.87)0.0099
Medication in hospital, n (%)
 Cholesterol-lowering agents9182 (96.99)1844 (97.10)1893 (97.23)1803 (96.99)1791 (96.45)1851 (97.17)0.6374
 Antihypertensive agents4568 (48.25)959 (50.50)939 (48.23)874 (47.01)873 (47.01)923 (48.45)0.1875
 Hypoglycaemic agents2449 (25.87)476 (25.07)506 (25.99)489 (26.30)486 (26.17)492 (25.83)0.9206
 Antiplatelet agents9191 (97.08)1852 (97.53)1885 (96.82)1806 (97.15)1811 (97.52)1837 (96.43)0.2016
 Anticoagulant agents849 (8.97)211 (11.11)177 (9.09)159 (8.55)150 (8.08)152 (7.98)0.0043
NIHSS score on admission3 (1–6)3 (1–6)3 (1–6)3 (1–6)3 (1–5)3 (1–6)<0.0001
Time from onset of symptoms to admission, hours15.00 (3.00–45.00)12.00 (3.00–32.00)14.00 (3.00–45.00)15.00 (3.00–45.00)15.00 (3.00–44.00)19.00 (4.00–48.00)<0.0001
Total cholesterol, mmol/L3.97 (3.31–4.74)3.92 (3.31–4.74)4.02 (3.31–4.77)3.95 (3.3–4.71)4 (3.31–4.74)3.95 (3.32–4.75)0.7846
Low-density lipoprotein, mmol/L2.3 (1.71–2.97)2.27 (1.7–2.96)2.34 (1.72–3.01)2.28 (1.69–2.95)2.31 (1.71–2.97)2.3 (1.72–2.98)0.6915
High-density lipoprotein, mmol/L0.93 (0.77–1.11)0.90 (0.77–1.08)0.93 (0.76–1.11)0.93 (0.76–1.1)0.93 (0.77–1.13)0.95 (0.78–1.13)0.0236
Triglycerides, mmol/L1.38 (1.04–1.89)1.38 (1.04–1.91)1.40 (1.06–1.91)1.36 (1.00–1.88)1.41 (1.04–1.95)1.36 (1.04–1.84)0.2033
Fasting blood glucose, mmol/L5.56 (4.90–6.99)5.53 (4.87–6.94)5.60 (4.94–7.10)5.56 (4.90–6.90)5.52 (4.90–7.02)5.53 (4.90–6.99)0.3506
eGFR, mL/min/1.73 m293.31 (81.94–102.03)92.96 (80.93–102.93)93.32 (81.58–101.83)93.85 (81.95–102.55)94.11 (82.57–102.01)92.76 (82.72–101.01)0.4400
hs-CRP, mg/L1.78 (0.81–4.71)2.05 (0.87–5.58)1.79 (0.82–4.78)1.75 (0.8–4.51)1.66 (0.81–4.43)1.64 (0.78–4.36)0.0020
Medication on discharge, n (%)
 Cholesterol-lowering agents8571 (92.06)1772 (93.07)1801 (92.26)1717 (91.82)1709 (91.59)1752 (91.49)0.3638
 Antihypertensive agents4840 (50.91)1004 (52.73)996 (51.02)934 (49.95)944 (50.59)962 (50.23)0.4544
 Hypoglycaemic agents2298 (24.17)460 (24.16)478 (24.49)449 (24.01)445 (23.85)466 (24.33)0.9918
 Antiplatelet agents8668 (91.17)1740 (91.93)1773 (90.83)1710 (91.44)1704 (91.32)1741 (90.91)0.9421
 Anticoagulant agents260 (2.73)64 (3.36)53 (2.72)47 (2.51)44 (2.36)52 (2.72)0.3853
  • CO2CP, carbon dioxide combining power; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; hs-CRP, high-sensitivity C reactive protein; NIHSS, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale; TIA, transient ischaemic attack; TOAST, Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment.