Table 1

Baseline characteristics of study cohort (n=3720)*

Demographic features (%)
 Age (years)63±11
 Black race12
 Hispanic ethnicity4
 College education (>12 years)48
 Married/living with partner71
Clinical history (%)†
 Stroke at entry (vs TIA)87
 Coronary artery disease12
 Atrial fibrillation7
 Carotid artery disease19
 Peripheral vascular disease6
 Current smoker16
Physical examination
 BMI (kg/m2)30±6
 Waist (cm)103±14
 Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg)133±17
 Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg)79±11
 NIH Stroke Scale0 (0,1)
 Modified Rankin1 (0,2)
 Modified mini-mental examination96 (92, 99)
Laboratory data
 Haemoglobin A1c (%)5.8±0.4
 Homeostasis model assessment‡4.6 (3.7, 6.2)
 Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (mmol/L)2.3±0.8
 High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (mmol/L)1.2±0.3
 Triglycerides (mmol/L)1.6±0.8
Concomitant medications (%)
 Statin therapy82
 Non-ASA antiplatelet43
 Oral anticoagulants11
Geography (%)
  • *Plus–minus values are means±SD. Features are presented as median values (25th centile, 75th centile) when distributions are highly skewed.

  • †Clinical history variables were defined as follows: stroke versus TIA, see entry criteria; hypertension, self-report; hyperlipidaemia, self-report; coronary artery disease, self-report history of hospitalisation for myocardial infarction, coronary artery bypass graft or coronary stent insertion; atrial fibrillation, history as determined by site investigator; carotid artery disease, baseline carotid stenosis ≥50%; peripheral vascular disease, self-report; current smoking, self-report (uncertain self-report=‘no’).

  • ‡HOMA is an index of insulin resistance based on fasting insulin and glucose values. HOMA >3.0 was used to identify patients with insulin resistance in IRIS.15

  • ASA, American Stroke Association; BMI, body mass index; HOMA, homeostasis model assessment; IRIS, Insulin Resistance Intervention after Stroke; TIA, transient ischemic attack.