Table 1

Animal models of ICH

Mediators of injuryAdvantagesDisadvantagesCitation
MicroballoonMicroballoon model successfully in producing an effective brain lesionwithreduction in cerebral blood flow and an increase in intracranial pressure at the site of damage.Fails to address the potential effects of blood and subsequent substances released by the clot formation.55–60
Autologous whole bloodThe autologous blood injection model providesa sterile system without exogenous proteins, a good way to investigate the natural coagulation and inflammation pathways after ICH.The amount of blood injected into the brain is significantly higher than other mediators, there is always a risk of blood disruption in the subarachnoid and ventricular spaces.47–49 61–72
CollagenaseCollagenase injection model offers an easier procedure and a highly reproducible haemorrhage.The bacterial collagenase can introduce a significant inflammatory reaction to affect investigation of innate inflammatory responses; Disrupted BBB could unnaturally facilitate drugaccess to the brain during pharmacological (eg, neuroprotection) experiments.62 64 73–77
ThrombinThis model has been used to study the mechanisms of thrombin toxicity that cause neuroinflammation and cell deathThis model provides minimal utility beyond thrombin toxicity research.47 78–80
Hypertensive stroke modelsThis model has been used to study the mechanisms of thrombin toxicity to study the mechanism of brain injury following hypertensive ICH.The disadvantage of this model is that brain lesions are unpredictable with regard to size and location.81–83
/intraventricular haemorrhage
This model mimics the hydrocephalus following PVH/IVH in prematurely born infants, it provides an opportunity to study mechanisms of cellular injury after PVH/IVH.This model provides minimal utility other than PVH/IVH.30 46 84–92
  • BBB, blood brain barrier.