Table 2

Multimodality of BP modulating agents in acute stroke

Beneficial effectsDetrimental effects
AgentAnti-inflammationSmooth muscle cell antiproliferationCerebral vasodilatationNeuroprotectionAntiplatelet*Negative inotropeStress hormone attenuation
α2-adrenoreceptor agonist49–51+
α and β-Blocker49
ACEi52 53++++
ARA54 55+++
β-blocker56 57
NO donor62–65++++
  • Broad categories of other potential effects of BP modulating agents, with over-arching beneficial and detrimental groups. ‘+’=Beneficial effects, ‘−’=Detrimental effects, ‘*’=In the context of ICH, antiplatelet properties are potentially detrimental.

  • ACEi, ACE inhibitors; ARA, angiotensin receptor antagonists; CCA, calcium channel antagonists; NO, nitric oxide; SNP, sodium nitroprusside.