Brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are complex and heterogeneous lesions that can rupture, causing significant morbidity and mortality. While ruptured lesions are usually treated, the management of unruptured AVMs remains unclear. A Randomized trial of Unruptured Brain Arteriovenous Malformations (ARUBA) was the first trial conducted to compare the effects of medical and interventional therapy. Although it concluded that medical therapy was superior in preventing stroke and death over a follow-up period of 33 months, the findings were met with intense criticism regarding several aspects of study design, progression, and analysis/conclusion. Namely, the increased use of stand-alone embolisation relative to microsurgery in a cohort with predominantly low-grade lesions combined with a short follow-up period amplified treatment risk. Subsequently, several observational studies were conducted on ARUBA-eligible patients to investigate the safety and efficacy of microsurgery, radiosurgery, and endovascular embolisation over longer follow-up periods. These reports showed that favourable safety profiles and cure rates can be achieved with appropriate patient selection and judicious use of different treatment modalities in multidisciplinary centres. Since large prospective randomised trials on AVMs may not be feasible, it is important to make use of practice-based data beyond the flawed ARUBA study to optimise patients’ lifetime outcomes.
- intracranial arteriovenous malformations
This is an open access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited, appropriate credit is given, any changes made indicated, and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/.
Statistics from Altmetric.com
Contributors JH and JF both participated in the conception, drafting and approval of the manuscript.
Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Competing interests None declared.
Patient consent for publication Not required.
Provenance and peer review Commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
Data availability statement All data relevant to the study are included in the article.
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.